Taiwan is a mountainous island with fragile geology and many short, steep rivers. Typhoons and torrential rains are common, and often cause floods and landslides. Forest land remediation and restoration projects are intended to prevent and alleviate natural disasters, and are an important part of watershed remediation campaigns. Based on the concept of overall governance in the watershed area, the Forestry Bureau executes some constructions, such as check dams, bank protections and retaining walls. The purpose is to prevent sediments from moving downward, maintain streams’ longitudinal slope from over erosion, stabilize forest land, and protect downstream public facilities as well as people’s life and property.
National forests watershed management and disaster prevention
(1) Survey and plan of overall management in the watershed area
Conduct disaster or ecological survey and overall management plan in the watershed area, so as to execute management works and ecological environmental protection works at the same time.
(2) Sediment control
Prevent or mitigate stream erosion, draining and bank collapse, stabilize gully, prevent the spread of erosion, and effectively control sediment yield and movement, so as to achieve the stabilization of gully, management of stream and prevention of debris flow.
(3) Handle of landslides
Prevent and control the occurrence of landslide, reduce or eliminate its disasters, and maintain the purpose of effective and sustainable utilization of soil and water resources.
(4) Maintenance and handle of unexpected disasters
Improvement and maintenance of existing forest roads
Forest roads are necessary paths for the Forestry Bureau to execute afforestation, forest protection, silviculture, forest eco-tourism, ban of illegal logging, disaster relief, and forest fire prevention. Forest roads are also major passages for residents to transport agricultural and forestry products, and economic minerals. They are used for defense transport, too. Therefore, forestry management, development of tourism industry, export of mountain industry and military defense all depend on whether forest roads are accessible or not.
(1) Status of forest roads
According to forestry management, 82 of the existing forest roads totaled 1,650 kilometers must be retained. The rest forest roads are closed, demolished or transformed into hiking trails that restore afforestation. There are 16 major forest roads totaled 309 kilometers, 39 secondary forest roads totaled 963 kilometers, and 27 general forest roads totaled 378 kilometers.
In recent years, the forest eco-tourism has become a trend. The Forestry Bureau’s national forest recreational areas become people’s important recreational sites. Therefore, service quality of roads and improvement of forest roads is an important issue to ensure the public and tourists’ driving quality and safety.
(2) Improvement and maintenance of forest roads
Engineering design of forest roads is based on the design specifications by the Forestry Bureau, Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan. Topography, geology and forestry management must be taken into consideration. Maintenance or improvement must be done according to Class A, Class B or Class C forest design specifications.
Recently typhoon disasters caused landslides of national forests and affected homeland security and natural landscape. In order to prevent that, no new forest road is opened. Moreover, the bureau improves forest roads and keeps the maintenance of soil and water, particularly for the upper and lower slopes of the major, secondary and general forest roads necessary in forestry management. Furthermore, the bureau executes special and regular inspections of forest roads according to the Council of Agriculture’s “directions for maintenance and management of forest roads.” The bureau aims to ensure the accessibility of external transports in tribal villages and other public facilities. In addition, the bureau enhances the improvement of landscape on the linking forest roads of national forest recreation areas, in order to create high-quality tourism environments in those areas.
Development of national forests treatment method
In terms of management and restoration works of national forests, the Forestry Bureau promotes the concept of “ecological engineering,” taking ecological environments into consideration. Meanwhile, the bureau strengthens vegetation engineering to promote vegetation restoration. This way has led to a significant effect so far. It gradually changes the past mindset that only concerned about the security of structure. Over these years, the bureau has promoted the wooden construction project, establishment of fish ways, and vegetation engineering of landslide. The goal is to make management and ecological environmental conservation complement each other. In addition, some plantations of national forests should be timely handled to boost plantation’s growth of more trees and production of high-quality large timber. Then timber can be appropriately utilized to manage mountains, prevent disasters and maintain forest roads, so as to reduce excess cement products for the facilities of national forests.
Last updated on:2016-10-26