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Global warming & international protocols

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Since the Industrial Revolution, people have consumed  a large amount of fossil fuels. This has resulted in a huge increase of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere, the worsening of global warming, and eventually climate change. Experts have estimated that global warming will cause arctic and antarctic ice caps and high-mountain glaciers to melt, sea levels to rise, and new climate types and extreme weather such as droughts and floods to rise. Climate change can severely affect the growing of crops, too.
Since climate change takes place rather slowly and carbon dioxide can linger for more than a hundred years in the atmosphere, even though people have largely reduced the use of fossil fuels today, the Earth can still hugely suffer from global warming due to carbon emissions in the past. The severity must be addressed to. In a special report published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 2018, in the last hundred years, the global mean temperature has increased by 0.8℃~1.2℃. And if carbon dioxide continues to be as dense as it is, by the mid 21st Century, the global surface temperature will rise by 1.5~2℃ compared to that of the 19th Century. The results will likely include rising sea levels, extreme weather such as torrential rain or droughts, and an ill-distribution of water resources. As global warming worsens, the world’s governments should also keep the increase in the global atmospheric temperature well within 1.5℃ to cut impacts of climate change against the Earth. 
How the Earth’s surface temperature has changed in the last 140 years

Kyoto Protocol
Global warming results from massive greenhouse gas emissions that strengthened the greenhouse effect. To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, the world’s governments agreed that a legally binding protocol was needed to put consensus into practice. Hence, in the third session of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP3) in 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was passed to set emission reduction targets for the participating countries. The Kyoto protocol covers six categories of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6). From 2008 to 2012, either individually or jointly, the contracting states must reduce GHG emissions by 5.2% below 1990 levels. Each country’s circumstances were taken into account to set their own targets. Also, three flexible mechanisms, Joint Implementation (JI), Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), and Emissions Trading (ET), were introduced. The Kyoto Protocol became effective on February 16, 2005. The binding effect makes it a useful environment-protection standard that helps to mitigate the impacts of global climate change. 

Paris Agreement
The 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference, abbreviated as COP21, was held in Paris, France. On this occasion, the Paris Agreement was passed in succession of the Kyoto Protocol to be the only legally binding agreement on climate change in 2020 and after. The Paris Agreement aims to limit global warming to well below 2℃, preferably to 1.5℃ compared to pre-industrial levels. The contracting states should make Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) and implement bottom-up emission reduction and adaptation policies. They should also strengthen their elasticity for tackling climate change without affecting production of crops, in the meantime developing technologies for low greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, the Paris Agreement advocates proactive mitigation measures in developed countries and financial and technical support for developing countries. 
 
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