Innovative Forest Products

Contact person: Shang-Tzen Chang, distinguished professor, National Taiwan University,Tel: (02)33664626

Acacia confusa is commonly planted in low and middle altitude mountain areas. In the past, it was only used for making firewood, railroad ties, pillars of mine pits, farm tools, furniture, and ships. Currently, heat treatment technology has been developed to improve its value. Years of research commissioned by the Forestry and Nature Conservation Agency to the academic community have confirmed that the secondary metabolites of various parts of the acacia tree are rich in phenols and flavonoids and all have excellent health and medical effects such as anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, lowering of uric acid, and hepatoprotection. If subsequent healthcare and medical products can be developed, the economic value of the acacia tree will surely be improved, and it will also be beneficial to human health.
Technology contact person: Professor Haw-Farn Lan, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology
Manufacturer: Soapberry Biotech Progress Co., LTD. Tel: (06)5923840

Sapindus saponaria is a native species in Taiwan. It can grow in extremely barren soil and with a robust growth rate, making it a very good tree species for soil-water conservation on hillsides. The peel is rich in saponin and can be used for washing and cleaning. Therefore, it is also called "soap berry" and used as a substitute for soap in ancient times. In the early days, the traditional method of sapindus saponaria processing was through slow boil with a high rate of fermentation and acidification. Current extraction technology does not require the use of chemical catalysts. Instead, only water is needed for the extraction process to produce a large amount of natural surfactant (saponin) which can replace artificially synthesized detergents. The end result is an energy-saving and environmentally friendly ecological material.
Contact person: David Sheng-Yang Wang, distinguished professor, National Chung Hsing University
Manufacturer: Baijia Essential Oils (05)7991491

Melaleuca leucadendron is covered with layers of gray-white bark. It is thus also called a “peeling tree.” Just like the Australian tea tree (also called melaleuca leucadendron), it belongs to the genus melaleuca of the family myrtaceae. Melaleuca essential oil is a natural preservative, bactericide, antifungal agent and anesthetic. Melaleuca branches and leaves are rich in valuable "betulinic acid" which inhibits the proliferation of animal fat cells and can be further developed into health food or medical products.
Melaleuca melaleuca is drought-resistant, salt-resistant, wind-resistant, and sulfur dioxide-resistant. The leaves are thin and bountiful, which can trap a large amount of pollutants on the surface, allowing rainwater to wash pollutants back to the earth surface. It presents a good air purification benefit. As the coastal land of Yunlin County is too salinized to grow normal crops, melaleuca leucadendron becomes an ideal choice. Through the joint efforts from the industry, the government, academia and research institutes, members of the 7th Production and Marketing Group of Kou-hu Farmers Association, Yunlin County managed to extract essential oils from the branches and leaves of melaleuca and turned them into products like essential oil soaps. This has become a legendary story of Taiwan coastal forests.
Contact person: Shang-Tzen Chang, distinguished professor, National Taiwan University,Tel: (02)33664626

Cinnamomum osmophloeum is a native broad-leaved tree species in Taiwan. It grows in low-altitude mountain areas from 400 meters to 1,500 meters above the sea level. Because essential oil from its leaves contains similar ingredients to C. cassia essential oil but of different chemotype, showing valuable potential for further development and application, the oil is of great potential value.
Research commissioned by the Forestry and Nature Conservation Agency to academia throughout the years confirmed that the leaves, branches, essential oil and extracts from cinnamaldehyde-type cinnamomum osmophloeum possess many benefits which have prompted the interest of domestic industries. Now, quite a few manufactures have applied these research results and turned the leaves, essential oil and extracts from cinnamomum osmophloeum into products like cinnamon tea bags, cinnamon sugar, cinnamon powder, cinnamon wine, cinnamon vinegar, cinnamon hydrolate, cinnamon shampoo, mosquito repellent, and cinnamon toothpaste. High-value applications such as healthcare products can also be developed in the future.
Contact person: Shang-Tzen Chang, distinguished professor, National Taiwan University,Tel: (02)33664626

With a straight trunk, cryptomeria japonica can reach a height of 40 meters. It was once a major plantation species in Taiwan and all the plantations have reached a mature or even senescence stage. In addition to utilizing its timber, research commissioned by the Forestry and Nature Conservation Agency to academia confirmed that essential oil, extracts and components from various parts of cryptomeria japonica show good biological activity which helps to prevents wood rot and deter phytopathogens, bacteria, mosquito vector larvae, termites, and silverfish. They even show antioxidant, anti-oxidant, anti-anxiety and anti-prostate tumor benefits.
The research of cryptomeria japonica essential oil, extracts and components allows the development of daily life products like medicine and health care products, cosmetics, air freshener, insect repellents and environmental friendly agents, promising new business opportunities for forestry research and the biotech industry.
Contact person: Zhi-Long Zhuo, professor, National Ilan University
Technology transfer vendor: Kunn Yih Wood Corporation,Tel: (03)9903188

Technology description
"Taiwan acacia" was one of the key tree species for economic afforestation during the Japanese rule. It was often used as railroad ties, mine pit materials, farm tools, high-grade charcoal, etc. However, with unruly grain patterns, it is prone to cracks and difficult to process. After thermal modification at 150°C, the dimensional stability and durability of acacia is improved, with sapwood and heartwood showing better color and grain patterns. The modified wood greatly increased the value of domestic timber, as it not only can be applied to home decoration and furniture but also can be used for high-quality musical instruments, such as erhu, ukulele, guitar, stereo, and cajón.
Thermally modified acacia cajón
Thermally modified acacia guitar and ukulele
Contact person: Zhi-Long Zhuo, professor, National Ilan University ,Tel:(03)9357400 ext 7681

Technology description
The multi-dimensional transverse compressed wood technology can significantly reduce the drying time of timber, induce the injection of antiseptics, and increase the density, strength and surface smoothness of the timber. It can be applied to the development of indoor and outdoor construction materials, solid wood bending, and creative wood and bamboo products. The value of domestic timber can be greatly increased.
Cupid's arrow and fir board as a result of densification technology
Permeability of preservatives of K4 grade cedar logs
Contact person: Min-Jay Chung, researcher, the Experimental Forest, College of Bio-Resources and Agriculture, National Taiwan University,Tel: (049)2770138

Technology description
A specially developed bamboo strip cutter first rolls over and cuts bamboo into strips before the strips are pressed into boards through glue and thermal treatment. The oriented bamboo scrimber board (OBSB) is given an ultrasound scan for a nondestructive testing and analysis of the strength, sectional density, internal bond, and dimensional stability of different bamboo scrimbers. The research results help the bamboo processors to better understand the comprehensive characteristics of bamboo scrimbers and improve the adoption rate of the material for engineering application.
Contact person: Min-Jay Chung, researcher, the Experimental Forest, College of Bio-Resources and Agriculture, National Taiwan University,Tel: (049)2770138

Technology description
At present, the common boards on the market can be roughly divided into two categories: fiberboard and particleboard. Although these two types of boards have the characteristics of high raw material utilization, they do not perform well in strength. While plywood and laminated lumber perform excellently in strength, the raw material utilization rate is only about 50%. Therefore, this research collected the sapwood and makino bamboo scraps from processing plants and thermally compressed the materials into boards in accordance with different board combinations after simple mechanical processing and chemical treatment. This method improves the utilization of wood and bamboo waste and increases production value.
Contact person: Far-Ching Lin, associate professor, National Taiwan University
Technology Transfer Vendor: Yi Hao Industrial Co., Ltd. Tel: (04)22603431

Technology description
Wood pellets are produced by compressing crushed and finely ground wood material into hard pellets. Wood pellets are stable in nature, small in size, easy to store and transport. They are flame resistant, generate good thermal and energy efficiency, produce less smoke and dust during combustion, and achieve a complete combustion. They can replace fossil fuels, be put into a general boiler as a heat source through co-firing, or be used for biomass power generation.
Contact person: Wen-Jau Lee, associate professor, National Chung Hsing University
Technology Transfer Vendor: Te Feng Lumber Co., Ltd. Tel: (049)2642094

Technology description
This technology uses phenol or polyol as the solvent to liquefy wood, and then applies liquefied wood as the raw material for polymer resin, which can be used in the production of synthetic resins for the polymer industry, such as polyurethane resin (PU) foam. The end product provides heat insulation, sound insulation, and heat absorption, and can replace petrochemical materials.
Once called “the wood for the poor,” bamboo is a plant with a wide range of uses around the world. In recent years, the international community has begun to value environmentally friendly and fast-growing bamboo, which has turned it into a green material with great potential.
Taiwan’s bamboo forest covers an area of about 183,000 hectares. Of the 58 types of bamboo, 18 are native to Taiwan. Taiwan is rich in high quality bamboo resources. Bamboo grows fast and is ready for use within 4 years. With strong fecundity, the more old bamboo shoots are cut, the more beneficial it is for the germination of new shoots and the improvement of bamboo quality. The method helps to build healthy bamboo forests and enhance the effectiveness of land protection.
The Forestry and Nature Conservation Agency has integrated the resources of the industry, the government, academia, and research institutes, and has successively developed new bamboo (charcoal) products, production technologies and equipment, which can be applied in various fields such as textile, building construction, food, environmental improvement, medical care, and electronic components. At the same time, the Forestry and Nature Conservation Agency has also achieved a number of world firsts, including “establishing the world's first set of bamboo charcoal certification standards,” “bamboo charcoal refinement level and far-infrared measurement technology,” “remote automatic temperature control and monitoring platform,” and the first “modularized bamboo carbonization furnace and activation equipment.” The effort also leads to the development of hundreds of composite products.

Development of bamboo charcoal textiles
Successfully developed nano-level healthy bamboo carbon yarn can be used to make functional textiles and health products.
Development of bamboo charcoal daily products
Bamboo can be used to make a wide range of products such as bamboo charcoal musical instruments, bamboo charcoal cleaning products, beauty and care products, bamboo charcoal food, bamboo charcoal tea cans, bamboo charcoal wine, bamboo charcoal tableware, etc.
Development of fine bamboo creative products
Bamboo lamination and the green and yellow sections of bamboo are used to develop fine bamboo products such as creative electronic goods.
Development of bamboo-compound biological fertilizers
Bamboo charcoal and natural polymer molding technology are used to prepare culture materials. The end product can effectively retain water and fertilizers and facilitate germination. It is also used for the “Urban Farmer Gardening Kit.”
Development of bamboo-leaf flavor products
Bamboo leaves contain flavonoids and antioxidants, and its polysaccharides (with natural sweetness) with low calories can be used for healthcare and health products. It also has the advantages of high yield and high output value.

For technology inquiries, contact the Bamboo Industry Technical Consultation Center

(1) The magical black diamond: bamboo charcoal
|The function of porous bamboo charcoal|
Generally, what we call as “bamboo charcoal” is the carbon material that has not been activated. Bamboo charcoal with activation treatment is referred to as “activated bamboo charcoal.” After carbonization, the specific surface area can reach 300-600 m2/g. That is, the total area of the inner wall of 1g bamboo charcoal pores is about 300-600 m2, which is equivalent to the size of a tennis court. After activation treatment, the specific surface area can be increased to over 1000 m2/g. This amazingly large surface area is the reason bamboo charcoal can regulate humidity and purify water and air. The specific surface area of bamboo charcoal is about 2.5 times that of wood charcoal, and thus it shows a stronger adsorption capacity than wood charcoal.

|Bamboo charcoal and activated bamboo carbon|
During the carbonization process, hydrocarbons and other generated substances partially block the pores, and as a result, the reduced surface area impedes the adsorption capacity. The removal of hydrocarbons by physical air activation or chemical activation can increase the formation of pores and the surface area and thus adsorption capacity is enhanced. The activated carbon is called “activated carbon.”

As early as the beginning of the 17th century, British scientists had already used carbonized bamboo filaments to send current and light up lamp bulbs. Today, bamboo charcoal can be used in all aspects of life covering food, clothing, housing, transportation, and entertainment. Bamboo produces a very dense and porous structure after carbonization, and thus it comes with a range of excellent functions such as deodorization, humidity control, far infrared radiation, and electromagnetic shielding. Both bamboo charcoal and diamonds are composed of carbon atoms. Hence, some people refer to bamboo charcoal as “black diamonds.”

Under an electron microscope at magnification 100x, it can be seen that bamboo charcoal presents a very dense and porous structure, and the specific surface area (BET) can be as high as 300-600 m2/g after activation treatment.

(2) Bamboo charcoal conductivity illustration
|About bamboo charcoal conductivity|
“Carbonization” of bamboo is the thermal decomposition of bamboo under high temperature and a state of isolation or restriction of air. The final result is a carbon-based, graphite-like, six-ring layered structure. Carbon atoms extend in a two-dimensional space on a hexagonal planar structure and the layered arrangement of this two-dimensional structure allows electrons to move freely in each layer, making the bamboo charcoal conductive.
During the charcoal making process, the higher the carbonization temperature, the neater the arrangement of carbon atoms, and the higher the electrical conductivity. On the contrary, the lower the carbonization temperature is, the less orderly the arrangement of carbon atoms is. The greater the resistance of the bamboo charcoal to electricity, the lower electrical conductivity.
Cross section of bamboo charcoal microstructure
Cross section of bamboo charcoal microstructure
Bamboo charcoal microstructure: phyllostachys pubescen charcoal cross section
Bamboo charcoal microstructure: phyllostachys pubescen charcoal diameter cut
Bamboo charcoal microstructure: partial zoom of phyllostachys pubescen charcoal diameter section
Bamboo charcoal microstructure: phyllostachys pubescen charcoal diameter cut inner surface

(3) Bamboo color preservation technology
Contact person: Shang-Tzen Chang, distinguished professor, National Taiwan University,Tel:(02)33664626

In the past, bamboo green preservation treatment required a two-stage treatment process to achieve the green preservation. At present, a single-step bamboo green preservation treatment process has been successfully developed, and the technology adopts an environmentally friendly, low toxicity wood preservative - Alkyl copper quaternary compound (ACQ) - as the color preservation agent. The agent improves the decay-resistance capacity of green bamboo and can effectively reduce the production costs, while simplifying the complexity of the manufacturing process.

(4) Bamboo charcoal paper used in functional lamps
Contact person: Sheau-Horng Lin, professor, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology . Tel: (08)7703202 ext. 7133

A combination of aesthetic design and scientific research and development, the technology adds bamboo charcoal particles to the pulp to produce bamboo charcoal paper. The product shows a far-infrared emission rate of 70%, and the number of negative ions achieve a moderate or better level purification capacity. Different from traditional lamps that only have lighting functions, bamboo charcoal paper functional lamps have both environmental optimization functionality and market development potential.

(5) Bamboo moisturizing cosmetics
Contact person: Ying-Bin Huang, researcher, Industrial Technology Research Institute
Technology Transfer Vendor: Xinxi International Enterprise Co., Ltd. Tel: (06)6550550

Multiple pressure technology is leveraged to extract the beneficial elements from bamboo leaves, including isoflavones, phenol ketones, anthraquinones, amino acid polysaccharides and trace elements. These elements show excellent anti-radical and anti-oxidation (AOB) benefits, among others. These extracts can be fully exploited for the development of wholly natural skin care products and peripheral products.
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Whole-plant uses of acacia confusa pdf pdf File size:327KB Download count:862
Uses of sapindus saponaria fruits pdf pdf File size:226KB Download count:708
Uses of melaleuca leucadendron branches and leaves pdf pdf File size:414KB Download count:716
Uses of cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves pdf pdf File size:392KB Download count:725 pdf pdf File size:305KB Download count:742
High-value wood modification technology: thermally modified acacia pdf pdf File size:284KB Download count:742
Wood densification technology for domestic timber pdf pdf File size:219KB Download count:700
Oriented phyllostachys pubescen scrimber board technology pdf pdf File size:338KB Download count:781
The technology which turns scraps of domestic timber and bamboo into composite boards pdf pdf File size:297KB Download count:733
Wood pellet biomass energy technology pdf pdf File size:195KB Download count:737
Wood foam pdf pdf File size:201KB Download count:720
Bamboo technology: bamboo charcoal, bamboo color preservation, moisturizing cosmetics pdf pdf File size:1201KB Download count:817
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